Learn About India: The Multiplicity Of Indian Languages
For a country as big as India and with a population that is just as large (it is the second most populous country in the world), it is no surprise that the spoken languages are just as varied and as large.
For anyone who wants to learn an Thane News in marathi language, the undertaking is bound to be daunting because of the additional task of learning the particular script form of that language.
National And State Languages
Trying to learn all of them would certainly take more than a lifetime or two. Consider this fact – till date, the country has 15 national languages recognized by the Constitution. Within this multitude of languages, there are over 1,600 dialects on record, so far.
In addition to these, there are 18 languages recognized by the Indian constitution as state languages. These state languages are used in schools and in official transactions within their respective states.
They are Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada (Kanarese), Kashmiri, Konkani, Malayalam, Meithei (Manipuri), Marathi, Nepali, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, and Urdu.
The citizens of the former Indian states (and now independent countries – Pakistan and Bangladesh) speak Urdu and Bengali, respectively.
Official And Working Languages
Today, Hindi is recognized as India’s official language. It is spoken by about 20% of the population, especially in Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. However, taking into consideration the number of languages spoken all over the country, English is the official working language.
No single common language is spoken on the Indian subcontinent, except Hindi and English, which are the co-official national languages of India. Both languages are used as lingua franca all over these linguistic regions.
For many educated Indians, English is virtually their first language. Most Indians, however, are multi-lingual and it is only their second language.
Hindi And Urdu
Hindi and Urdu are actually slightly different dialects of the same language. Their main difference lies in their vocabulary roots, scripts and religious backgrounds.
The Hindi vocabulary mainly comes from Sanskrit. It is written in Devanagari (a script form) and spoken mainly by Hindus. Hindi itself has two major varieties: western and eastern Hindi. Both are spoken by more than 400 million people.
Urdu has words with Persian and Arabic origins, and written in the Persian-Arabic script. Urdu is spoken by Muslims in India and in Pakistan.
All the Indian languages belong themselves to two major linguistic families: the Indo-European and Dravidian groups. The others come from Austro-Asiatic and Tibeto-Burman groups and other small isolated languages.